HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is the standard Markup Language for creating Web Pages and Web Applications and make them functional. The code used to make them visually appealing is known as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

Web Browsers receives HTML documents from a Web Server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages.HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally include cues for the appearance of the document.

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HTML provides a means to create structured semantics Existence for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets. Tags such as <img/> and <input/> directly introduce content into the page. HTML can embed programs written in scripting languages such as Javascript, which affects the behaviour and content of the web pages.HTML are developed by W3C and WHATWG. It is extended from SGML to XHTML.



In 1980, physicist TIM BERNERS-LEE, a contractor at CERN, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an Internet-based hypertext system. Berners-Lee specified HTML and wrote the browser and server software in late 1990. That year, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer Robert Cailliau collaborated on a joint request for funding, but the project was not formally adopted by CERN.


The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called “HTML Tags”, first mentioned on the Internet by Tim Berners-Lee in late 1991. It describes 18 elements comprising the initial, relatively simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were strongly influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language-based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4.

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HTML versions timeline:

November 24, 1995

HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866

January 14, 1997

HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation.

December 18, 1997

HTML 4.0 was published as a W3C Recommendation.

April 24, 1998

HTML 4.0 was reissued with minor edits without incrementing the version number.

December 24, 1999

HTML 4.01 was published as a W3C Recommendation.

May 2000

ISO/IEC 15445:2000 was published as an ISO/IEC international standard.

October 28, 2014

HTML5 was published as a W3C Recommendation.

November 1, 2016

HTML 5.1 was published as a W3C Recommendation.

December 14, 2017

HTML 5.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation.

HTML draft version timeline:

October 1991

HTML Tags, an informal CERN document listing 18 HTML tags, was first mentioned in public.

June 1992

First informal draft of the HTML DTD, with seven subsequent revisions.

November 1992

HTML DTD 1.1, an informal draft.

June 1993

Hypertext Markup Language was published by the IETF IIIR Working Group as an Internet-Draft.

November 1993

HTML+ was published by the IETF as an Internet-Draft and was a competing proposal to the Hypertext Markup Language draft. It expired in May 1994.

April 1995 (authored March 1995)

HTML 3.0 was proposed as a standard to the IETF, but the proposal expired five months later.

January 2008

HTML5 was published as a working draft by the W3C.

2011 HTML5 –Last Call

On 14 February 2011, the W3C extended the charter of its HTML Working Group with clear milestones for HTML5.

2012 HTML5 – Candidate Recommendation

In July 2012, WHATWG and W3C decided on a degree of separation.

2014 HTML5–Proposed Recommendation and Recommendation

In September 2014, W3C moved HTML5 to Proposed Recommendation.

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MARKUP LANGUAGE: Markup Language is a language that is not in any way executed or used to perform an action but it is used to structure data, identify data, or present data as the case may be. It does the transition of raw text into structured documents by using markup tags into the raw text.

Examples: HTML, XML, CSS, XML, XHTML, MML, etc.

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE: Programming Language is the proper and formal language that is designed to allow programmers to communicate the instructions to the computer. It is coded, compiled and interpreted before it gets executed. The source code is converted into machine-readable form and then executed. The computer hardware is responsible to execute a programming language.

Examples: Java, Visual Basic, C, C++, etc.


HTML is the universal markup language for the web.HTML lets you format text, add graphics, create links, inputs forms, frames and tables etc., and save it all in a text file that any browser can read and display. Nowadays a new version of HTML is launched known as DYNAMIC HTML(DHTML).


HTML is a markup language, while DHTML is a collection of technology.

HTML creates static web pages whereas DHTML creates dynamic web pages.

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